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How water gets contaminated in rural settings: A study of Upper River Njoro Watershed, Kenya.

Wilkister N Moturi, Egerton University
William A. Shivoga, Egerton University

The study was carried out in 2005. To establish contamination at source, a sanitary survey was carried out in 38 watering points. Interview and observation conducted in 350 households identified risks associated with water contamination at consumption point. For bacteriological analysis, paired water samples were collected and analysed for faecal coliform from 20 of the 38 watering points; and from the stored household water supplies of 100 households (5 from each source), randomly selected from the 350. Activities around watering points encourage microbiological water contamination. The average faecal coliform counts are 717, 320 and 307 per 100ml water from major and minor tributaries of the river and springs respectively. The extent of faecal contamination at household level is 40.4% to 152.4%. These results demonstrate substantial levels of faecal contamination of even safe water during collection, storage and access in the home.

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Presented in Poster Session 1