The epidemiology of HIV infection in Zambia
Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala, University of Warwick
James Brown, University of Southampton
The study was conducted to assess the effect of confounding risk factors on AIDS/HIV prevalence and to develop a means of adjusting estimates of the observed prevalence in the Zambian Demographic and Health Survey programme (2001-2). This paper reports on approximately 2,500 men and a similar number of women that gave blood for syphilis and HIV testing. Controlling for important risk factors such as geographical location, age structure of the population, gender gave estimates of prevalence that are statistically robust. For instance, without taking into account the young age structure of the urban population infected by AIDS/HIV, Lusaka and Copperbelt have the first and second highest prevalence of AIDS/HIV but it is not the case when the younger age structure of the urban population is accounted for. Researchers should be encouraged to use all available information in the data to account for important risk factors when reporting AIDS/HIV prevalence.